Children start with disadvantage due to lower income or education level of parents
Children of parents with a lower income or education level already start with a disadvantage before primary school. It is nearly impossible for them to make up for this gap during their school career, according to the Central Planning Bureau (CPB).
Other studies, including one from Statistics Netherlands, found similar results. It found that children of parents with a low income or level of education are less good at math and languages at the age of 3 than children from more affluent families with higher education degrees. After first grade, this difference hardly increases, but it does not decrease either.
The study has not found a difference in work attitude and behavior between the different groups. What it did find was a link between school performance and a possible migratory background. Children whose parents are immigrants start on average with a delay in language and math skills, but they tend to catch up during their school career. Ultimately, the difference between children with a migratory background and those of a comparable socio-economic background without immigrant parents is minimal.
The study also found a difference between boys and girls. Girls tend to have a head start in language skills from the age of 2. Boys develop an advantage in mathematics after six years, although this lead diminishes somewhat later in life.
Boys also score significantly lower on work attitude and behavior from a young age. A lower score on this means, for example, that they are less detailed-oriented or give up more easily when something does not work out.