Dutch companies were involved in large scale VAT fraud, the proceeds of which were used to finance terrorism, according to television program Zembla based on its own investigation.

According to Zembla, using the trade of so-called CO2 certificates, the "biggest VAT fraud in history" was committed. The compulsory VAT on the certificates was not paid. Between 2008 and 2011 this amounted to between 5 billion and 10 billion euros in unpaid VAT. 

In 2010 documents relating to a criminal network in Italy were found near a known hideout of Osama Bin Laden in Pakistan. According to Zembla, Dutch comopany EcoDutch Carbon can be linked to the network via these documents. The Public Prosecutor in Milan told the program that the douments involved 1 billion euros worth of CO2 certificates. EcoDutch Carbon in The Hague denies any involvement in this fraud network.

Even more Dutch companies are involved in another fraud network with CO2 certificates in Germany, Zembla reports. In this case there is also evidence of terrorist financing, the Public Prosecutor in Cologne said to the show. One of these companies is VDL Duty Free Wholesale from Numansdorp. These companies also dey involvement in the tax fraud network.